Suppression of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Using Visual and Nonvisual Stimuli Purpose To determine to what extent attention directed toward visual, auditory, somesthetic, and imaginary sources would attenuate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Method Two prospective studies included 16 (Investigation 1) and 5 (Investigation 2) healthy participants (mean age of 24 years in Investigation 1 and 37 years in Investigation ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2012
Suppression of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Using Visual and Nonvisual Stimuli
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Gary P. Jacobson
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Erin G. Piker
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Christina Do
    University of Maryland, College Park
  • Devin L. McCaslin
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Linda Hood
    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Correspondence to Gary P. Jacobson: gary.jacobson@vanderbilt.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes
    Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes×
Article Information
Balance & Balance Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2012
Suppression of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Using Visual and Nonvisual Stimuli
American Journal of Audiology, December 2012, Vol. 21, 226-231. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2012/12-0021)
History: Received April 18, 2012 , Revised June 18, 2012 , Accepted June 24, 2012
 
American Journal of Audiology, December 2012, Vol. 21, 226-231. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2012/12-0021)
History: Received April 18, 2012; Revised June 18, 2012; Accepted June 24, 2012
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose To determine to what extent attention directed toward visual, auditory, somesthetic, and imaginary sources would attenuate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR).

Method Two prospective studies included 16 (Investigation 1) and 5 (Investigation 2) healthy participants (mean age of 24 years in Investigation 1 and 37 years in Investigation 2). VOR gain was assessed with a commercially available rotary chair and was measured in dark both while the subject was tasked with mental alerting exercises and while not being tasked. VOR suppression was measured for the following conditions: (a) visual suppression, (b) auditory suppression, (c) somatosensory suppression, (d) imaginary visual target suppression, and (e) combined auditory and somatosensory suppression.

Results Attention directed to visual source attenuated the VOR by approximately 85%. Attention directed toward auditory and somatosensory targets (both separately and combined) and attention directed toward an imaginary target suppressed the VOR between 28% and 44%. The extent of VOR suppression that occurred with attention directed toward various nonvisual stimuli was significantly less than the visual suppression of the VOR. The various nonvisual conditions were not statistically different from one another.

Conclusion The data suggest that it is possible for typical adults to suppress the VOR in the absence of a visual target. That is, the VOR can be attenuated with attention directed toward chair-fixed visual, auditory, somatosensory, and imaginary targets.

Acknowledgments
This investigation was conducted by Christina Do in partial fulfillment of her obligations as a recipient of a National Institutes of Health T-35 award.
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