Audiology in Germany Before and Since Reunification Perspective
Perspective  |   March 01, 1995
Audiology in Germany
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Thomas Lenarz, MD
    Hannover Medical University, Germany
    Professor and Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, K.- Gutschowstr. 9, 30625 Hannover, Germany
  • Arne Ernst
    Hannover Medical University, Germany
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Perspectives
Perspective   |   March 01, 1995
Audiology in Germany
American Journal of Audiology, March 1995, Vol. 4, 9-11. doi:10.1044/1059-0889.0401.09
History: Received December 8, 1993 , Accepted July 5, 1994
 
American Journal of Audiology, March 1995, Vol. 4, 9-11. doi:10.1044/1059-0889.0401.09
History: Received December 8, 1993; Accepted July 5, 1994
The history of audiology in Germany is closely related to the development of otology. Increasing knowledge of the physiology and pathology of the ear led to the description, at the end of the last century, of several diseases of the outer, middle, and inner ear (Schwartz, 1893). Determining surgical treatment options for these ear diseases required diagnostic tools to differentiate between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss (Politzer, 1907). Hence, following World War II, the operating microscope and the audiometer became essential diagnostic tools, launching the close partnership between otology and audiology (Feldmann, 1960). Changes in diagnostic procedures in otology reflected advances in technology, thereby demonstrating the close cooperation between industry and otolaryngologists. By the close of the 1950s, engineers and physicists were collaborating with otologists in developing a new generation of audiometers and material for speech audiometry. This collaboration formed the basis for partnerships in the development of hearing aids and highly differentiated audiometric tests (Feldmann, 1970), as well as the establishment of criteria for evaluating noise-induced hearing loss. Ultimately, this collaboration between otologists, engineers, and physicists guided developments in the specialty of audiology.
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