A Multisite Study to Examine the Efficacy of the Otoacoustic Emission/Automated Auditory Brainstem Response Newborn Hearing Screening Protocol Results of Visual Reinforcement Audiometry Supplement Article
Supplement Article  |   December 01, 2005
A Multisite Study to Examine the Efficacy of the Otoacoustic Emission/Automated Auditory Brainstem Response Newborn Hearing Screening Protocol
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Judith E. Widen
    Department of Hearing and Speech, MS 3039, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160
  • Jean L. Johnson
    University of Hawaiì, Honolulu
  • Karl R. White
    National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management, Utah State University, Logan
  • Judith S. Gravel
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY
  • Betty R. Vohr
    Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI
  • Michele James
    Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children and Women, Orlando, FL
  • Teresa Kennalley
    Via Christi Regional Medical Center, Wichita, KS
  • Antonia B. Maxon
    New England Center for Hearing Rehabilitation, Hampton, CT
  • Lynn Spivak
    Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY
  • Maureen Sullivan-Mahoney
    Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, OH
  • Yusnita Weirather
    Kapiòlani Medical Center for Women and Infants, Honolulu, HI
  • Sally Meyer
    National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management, Utah State University, Logan
  • Corresponding author: e-mail: jwiden@kumc.edu
  • Judith S. Gravel is now at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.
    Judith S. Gravel is now at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Special Populations / Early Identification & Intervention / Supplement: A Multisite Study to Examine the Efficacy of the Otoacoustic Emission/Automated Auditory Brainstem Response Newborn Hearing Screening Protocol
Supplement Article   |   December 01, 2005
A Multisite Study to Examine the Efficacy of the Otoacoustic Emission/Automated Auditory Brainstem Response Newborn Hearing Screening Protocol
American Journal of Audiology, December 2005, Vol. 14, S200-S216. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2005/022)
History: Received May 7, 2005 , Accepted November 8, 2005
 
American Journal of Audiology, December 2005, Vol. 14, S200-S216. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2005/022)
History: Received May 7, 2005; Accepted November 8, 2005

Purpose: This 3rd of 4 articles on a study of the efficacy of the 2-stage otoacoustic emission/automated auditory brainstem response (OAE/A-ABR) newborn hearing screening protocol describes (a) the behavioral audiometric protocol used to validate hearing status at 8–12 months of age, (b) the hearing status of the sample, and (c) the success of the visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) protocol across 7 sites.

Method: A total of 973 infants who failed OAE but passed A-ABR, in one or both ears, during newborn screening were tested with a VRA protocol, supplemented by tympanometry and OAE screening at age 8–12 months.

Results: VRA audiograms (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz) were obtained for 1,184 (82.7%) of the 1,432 study ears. Hearing loss was ruled out in another 100 ears by VRA in combination with OAE, for a total of 88.7% of the study sample. Permanent hearing loss was identified in 30 ears of 21 infants. Sites differed in their success with the VRA protocol.

Conclusions: Continued monitoring of hearing beyond the newborn period is an important component of early detection of hearing loss. Using a structured protocol, VRA is an appropriate test method for most, but not all, infants. A battery of test procedures is often needed to adequately delineate hearing loss in infants. Examiner experience appears to be a factor in successful VRA.

Acknowledgments
This study was made possible through a Cooperative Agreement between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM), Award U50/CCU300860 TS-523. The contents of the study are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the CDC or the ATPM. An abbreviated version of the four articles in this series was previously published in the September 2005 issue of Pediatrics (Johnson, White, Widen, Gravel, James, et al., 2005). The contributed resources of the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management were indispensable in the successful completion of the study. Justus Randolph, Danhui Zhang, and Maria Hovak were critical assets in the management and analysis of the data. Three audiology graduate students at the University of Kansas contributed to preparation of this particular article: Stacey Baldwin, Rosa Gutierrez Moore, and Angelique Torres. The authors express their heartfelt appreciation to the pediatric audiologists who performed the diagnostic assessments. Finally, we thank the 973 families who returned for the diagnostic evaluations.
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