Internet-Based Cognitive—Behavioral Self-Help Treatment of Tinnitus Clinical Effectiveness and Predictors of Outcome Research Article
Research Article  |   December 2004
Internet-Based Cognitive—Behavioral Self-Help Treatment of Tinnitus
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Viktor Kaldo-Sandström
    University Hospital, Uppsala, and Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Hans Christian Larsen
    University Hospital, Uppsala
  • Gerhard Andersson, PhD
    University Hospital, Uppsala, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Telepractice & Computer-Based Approaches / Research and Technology / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 2004
Internet-Based Cognitive—Behavioral Self-Help Treatment of Tinnitus
American Journal of Audiology, December 2004, Vol. 13, 185-192. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2004/023)
History: Received August 11, 2003 , Revised January 6, 2004 , Accepted June 30, 2004
 
American Journal of Audiology, December 2004, Vol. 13, 185-192. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2004/023)
History: Received August 11, 2003; Revised January 6, 2004; Accepted June 30, 2004

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for tinnitus in a nonrandomized clinical effectiveness study with a sample of consecutive patients referred for psychological treatment (N = 77). Results were calculated at a group level on an intention-to-treat basis and showed significant reductions of distress on the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire (P. H. Wilson, J. Henry, M. Bowen, & G. Haralambous, 1991), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (A. S. Zigmond & R. P. Snaith, 1983), and on the Insomnia Severity Index (C. H. Bastien, A. Vallières, & C. M. Morin, 2001). A 3-month follow-up showed that patients remained improved. The dropout rate was 30%. Treatment compliance, external referral to the treatment, and number of earlier treatments for tinnitus were associated with positive outcome. The number of e-mails between therapist and patient concerning treatment problems was associated with worse outcome. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy holds some promise as a treatment modality for tinnitus. Future research should focus on further controlled evaluations of the treatment technique and evaluate the cost-effectiveness compared to other forms of tinnitus treatments.

Acknowledgments
This study was supported by the Swedish Hard of Hearing Association, the Swedish Council for Working and Life research, and Kommittén för miljö och folkhälsa. Parts of the data contained herein were presented as a paper at the VIIth International Tinnitus Seminar, Fremantle, Australia, March 2002, and that paper was included in the proceedings.
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