Developmental Outcomes in Early School-Age Children with Minimal Hearing Loss Purpose Previous research suggests that school-age children with minimal hearing loss (CMHL) are at risk for a variety of psychoeducational problems. However, CMHL are a heterogeneous group, and the profile of at-risk children is unknown. Data regarding the characteristics of early school-age CMHL are needed to extend previous findings and ... Research Article
Research Article  |   December 01, 2013
Developmental Outcomes in Early School-Age Children with Minimal Hearing Loss
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Heather Porter
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN
  • Douglas P. Sladen
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
  • Steve B. Ampah
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN
  • Ann Rothpletz
    University of Louisville, Louisville, KY
  • Fred H. Bess
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Heather Porter: heather_porter@med.unc.edu
  • Editor: Larry Humes
    Editor: Larry Humes×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Disorders / School-Based Settings / Attention, Memory & Executive Functions / Research Articles
Research Article   |   December 01, 2013
Developmental Outcomes in Early School-Age Children with Minimal Hearing Loss
American Journal of Audiology, December 2013, Vol. 22, 263-270. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2013/13-0013)
History: Received February 15, 2013 , Revised March 27, 2013 , Accepted April 3, 2013
 
American Journal of Audiology, December 2013, Vol. 22, 263-270. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2013/13-0013)
History: Received February 15, 2013; Revised March 27, 2013; Accepted April 3, 2013
Web of Science® Times Cited: 4

Purpose Previous research suggests that school-age children with minimal hearing loss (CMHL) are at risk for a variety of psychoeducational problems. However, CMHL are a heterogeneous group, and the profile of at-risk children is unknown. Data regarding the characteristics of early school-age CMHL are needed to extend previous findings and determine potential risk factors associated with psychoeducational difficulties.

Method Psychoeducational outcomes were evaluated at baseline and longitudinally in age-matched groups of 27 CMHL (ages 4–10 years) and 26 children with normal hearing (CNH) using assessments of language, reading, behavior, speech recognition in noise, and cognition. Additional analyses were used to identify demographic characteristics among CMHL that are associated with psychoeducational difficulties.

Results At the earliest age tested, CMHL had greater teacher-rated attention difficulties in the classroom than CNH. Differences in the rate of psychoeducational development were not observed between groups. Among CMHL, psychoeducational difficulties were associated with delays in identification of hearing loss and low maternal education.

Conclusions Classroom attention abilities should be monitored for early school-age CMHL. Late-identified CMHL and CMHL with low maternal education levels may be in particular need of academic and social support. Continued efforts for early identification of CMHL should be made to improve outcomes for these children.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Grant H133G050211 from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (F. H. Bess, principal investigator). We thank the graduate students from the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center, Nashville, TN, who assisted in subject recruitment and data collection for this project, including Gail Amornpongchai, Andy DeLong, Danielle Elder, Ashley Garey, Melanie Gilbert, Alissa Harbin, Thelma Aquaah-Harrison, Julie Rosenthal, and Susan Stangl. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the Atlanta Speech School for allowing us to use their facilities for testing participants. Finally, we express our gratitude to Katerina Ntourou and Elizabeth Spencer for their thoughtful comments and suggestions on the manuscript.
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