Development and Validation of the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire Purpose To create a questionnaire focused on the primary activities impaired by tinnitus and therefore more sensitive to treatments. Method Questions were developed on (a) emotions, (b) hearing, (c) sleep, and (d) concentration. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to 158 patients. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to ... Research Article
Research Article  |   September 01, 2014
Development and Validation of the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Richard Tyler
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Haihong Ji
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Ann Perreau
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Shelley Witt
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • William Noble
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Claudia Coelho
    University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Richard Tyler: rich-tyler@uiowa.edu
  • Editor: Larry Humes
    Editor: Larry Humes×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   September 01, 2014
Development and Validation of the Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire
American Journal of Audiology, September 2014, Vol. 23, 260-272. doi:10.1044/2014_AJA-13-0014
History: Received May 20, 2013 , Revised March 26, 2014 , Accepted April 5, 2014
 
American Journal of Audiology, September 2014, Vol. 23, 260-272. doi:10.1044/2014_AJA-13-0014
History: Received May 20, 2013; Revised March 26, 2014; Accepted April 5, 2014
Web of Science® Times Cited: 9

Purpose To create a questionnaire focused on the primary activities impaired by tinnitus and therefore more sensitive to treatments.

Method Questions were developed on (a) emotions, (b) hearing, (c) sleep, and (d) concentration. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to 158 patients. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to select 3 questions per domain. Second, factor analysis was used to evaluate the appropriateness of the 12-item questionnaire.

Results The analysis indicated that the selected questions successfully represented 4 independent domains. Scores were correlated with the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (r = .77, p < .01) and loudness (r = .40, p < .01). The Sleep subscale correlated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (r = .68, p < .01); the Emotion subscale correlated with the Beck Inventory (r = .66, p < .01) and the Trait Anxiety questionnaire (r = .67, p < .01). The average scores went from 51% to 38% following treatment.

Conclusion The Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire is valid, reliable, and sensitive and can be used to determine the efficacy of clinical trials.

Acknowledgments
The development of this project evolved during the support of the following: National Institutes of Health Grant R01 DC005972-01A1, the American Tinnitus Association, Action on Hearing Loss, and the Tinnitus Research Initiative.
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