Measuring the Advantage of Kalman-Weighted Averaging for Auditory Brainstem Response Hearing Evaluation in Infants Purpose The purposes of this study were to (a) measure the effects of Kalman-weighted averaging methods on auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold, latency, and amplitude; (b) translate lab findings to the clinical setting; and (c) estimate cost savings when ABRs can be obtained in nonsedated infants. Method ABRs ... Research Article
Research Article  |   June 01, 2015
Measuring the Advantage of Kalman-Weighted Averaging for Auditory Brainstem Response Hearing Evaluation in Infants
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Barbara Cone
    The University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Linda W. Norrix
    The University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.×
  • Correspondence to Barbara Cone: conewess@email.arizona.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes
    Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   June 01, 2015
Measuring the Advantage of Kalman-Weighted Averaging for Auditory Brainstem Response Hearing Evaluation in Infants
American Journal of Audiology, June 2015, Vol. 24, 153-168. doi:10.1044/2015_AJA-14-0021
History: Received April 8, 2014 , Revised September 10, 2014 , Accepted January 11, 2015
 
American Journal of Audiology, June 2015, Vol. 24, 153-168. doi:10.1044/2015_AJA-14-0021
History: Received April 8, 2014; Revised September 10, 2014; Accepted January 11, 2015
Web of Science® Times Cited: 2

Purpose The purposes of this study were to (a) measure the effects of Kalman-weighted averaging methods on auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold, latency, and amplitude; (b) translate lab findings to the clinical setting; and (c) estimate cost savings when ABRs can be obtained in nonsedated infants.

Method ABRs were recorded in 40 adults with normal hearing during induced motor noise conditions using the Kalman-weighted averaging method implemented on a commercial system, the Vivosonic Integrity (Vivosonic Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The device was then used to test 34 infants in awake and asleep states. The advantages of the Kalman-weighted averaging method were modeled in terms of time saved for conducting an ABR evaluation.

Results Kalman-weighted ABR threshold estimates were 6–7 dB lower than with conventional methods during induced motor noise. When used to obtain ABRs in infants who were awake, the number of sweeps required to obtain a result was significantly greater than that required for a sleeping infant but well within the range for clinical application.

Conclusions The use of Kalman-weighted averaging provides a measurable advantage over conventional methods and may reduce costs for the pediatric audiology practice.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Association for University Centers on Disability Grant RTOI-2010-03 awarded to Barbara Cone, principal investigator. Amy Marin and Christine Bartelt are acknowledged for their role in testing adult subjects and implementing the research protocol with efficiency and precision. We wish to acknowledge technical support and advice from Rafael Delgado of Intelligent Hearing Systems and Aaron Steinman of Vivosonic. We also acknowledge the helpful discussions with our colleagues David Velenovsky and James Dean as this project was developed.
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