The Effect of Stimulus Intensity and Carrier Frequency on Auditory Middle- and Long-Latency Evoked Potentials Using a Steady-State-Response Approach Purpose The purpose of this study was to measure magnitude changes of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) and respective transient middle- and long-latency responses as a function of stimulus intensity and carrier frequency. The literature lacks clear consensus, including relationship to loudness. Method A cohort of 48 adults with ... Research Article
Research Article  |   March 01, 2016
The Effect of Stimulus Intensity and Carrier Frequency on Auditory Middle- and Long-Latency Evoked Potentials Using a Steady-State-Response Approach
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Abreena I. Tlumak
    Veterans Administration Pittsburgh Healthcare System, PA
  • John D. Durrant
    University of Pittsburgh, PA
  • Rafael E. Delgado
    Intelligent Hearing Systems, Miami, FL
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to John D. Durrant: durrant@pitt.edu
  • Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes
    Editor and Associate Editor: Larry Humes×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Research Articles
Research Article   |   March 01, 2016
The Effect of Stimulus Intensity and Carrier Frequency on Auditory Middle- and Long-Latency Evoked Potentials Using a Steady-State-Response Approach
American Journal of Audiology, March 2016, Vol. 25, 62-74. doi:10.1044/2016_AJA-15-0061
History: Received October 7, 2015 , Revised December 20, 2015 , Accepted December 28, 2015
 
American Journal of Audiology, March 2016, Vol. 25, 62-74. doi:10.1044/2016_AJA-15-0061
History: Received October 7, 2015; Revised December 20, 2015; Accepted December 28, 2015

Purpose The purpose of this study was to measure magnitude changes of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) and respective transient middle- and long-latency responses as a function of stimulus intensity and carrier frequency. The literature lacks clear consensus, including relationship to loudness.

Method A cohort of 48 adults with normal hearing was examined from a companion study (Tlumak, Durrant, & Delgado, 2015) on effects of aging. ASSRs were elicited by repeated tone-burst stimuli presented at rates of 40 and 0.75 Hz at 3 frequencies and 5 levels of stimulus intensity. The design also permitted scrutiny of any gender bias to the results.

Results Similar to derived transient response findings, ASSR magnitude (harmonic sum) systematically increased with intensity. Input–output function only at 0.75 Hz approximated a log–log linear function. However, slopes fell well below that of doubling of loudness per 10 dB SPL. Results failed to demonstrate significance as a function of carrier frequency and gender for both repetition rates.

Conclusion Effects of stimulus intensity, carrier frequency, and gender on ASSRs were similar to those of their transient counterparts. Findings remain disappointing for objective loudness estimation. Results suggest only a clear linkage to the long-latency response and the 0.75-Hz magnitude but require careful consideration of limitations/underlying mechanisms when measuring loudness-related effects.

Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful for support from the Office of Research and Development Service, Department of Veterans Affairs (Project ID C7620-M, Career Development Award [CDA] to the first author) as well as the Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, a merit grant to Sheila Pratt (CDA co-mentor), and Patrick Doyle, director of audiology and speech pathology services. Special thanks are given to Elaine Rubinstein for her assistance in statistical analysis. The contents do not represent the views of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the U.S. Government.
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