High Risk Factors Associated With Early Childhood Hearing Loss: A 3-Year Review Purpose In this study, we examined the association between risk factors for hearing loss and early childhood hearing status (normal hearing, congenital hearing loss, or delayed-onset hearing loss). Follow-up rates of audiologic care following passed or referred birth screens for children with risk factors were also examined. Method ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   May 06, 2017
High Risk Factors Associated With Early Childhood Hearing Loss: A 3-Year Review
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Kelsey A. Dumanch
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Lenore Holte
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City
    Center for Disabilities and Development, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Tammy O'Hollearn
    Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines
  • Elizabeth Walker
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Jacob Clark
    College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Jacob Oleson
    College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Kelsey A. Dumanch: Kelsey-dumanch@uiowa.edu
  • Editor: Sumitrajit Dhar
    Editor: Sumitrajit Dhar×
  • Associate Editor: Ryan McCreery
    Associate Editor: Ryan McCreery×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Research Issues, Methods & Evidence-Based Practice / Regulatory, Legislative & Advocacy / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   May 06, 2017
High Risk Factors Associated With Early Childhood Hearing Loss: A 3-Year Review
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-16-0116
History: Received December 6, 2016 , Revised January 10, 2017 , Accepted January 12, 2017
 
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-16-0116
History: Received December 6, 2016; Revised January 10, 2017; Accepted January 12, 2017

Purpose In this study, we examined the association between risk factors for hearing loss and early childhood hearing status (normal hearing, congenital hearing loss, or delayed-onset hearing loss). Follow-up rates of audiologic care following passed or referred birth screens for children with risk factors were also examined.

Method A retrospective data review was completed on 115,039 children born from 2010 to 2012. Data analyses included prevalence rates, odds ratios, and Fisher exact tests of statistical significance.

Results Ninety percent of children were born with no risk factors for hearing loss; of those, 99.9% demonstrated normal hearing by 3 years of age. Of the 10% of children born with risk factors, 96.3% demonstrated normal hearing by age 3, 1.4% presented with congenital hearing loss, and 2.3% demonstrated permanent hearing loss by age 3. Factors that placed children at the highest risk of congenital hearing impairment were neurodegenerative disorders, syndromes, and congenital infections. Factors that placed children at the highest risk of developing permanent postnatal hearing loss were congenital cytomegalovirus, syndromes, and craniofacial anomalies.

Conclusions Certain risk factors place a child at significantly greater risk of congenital hearing impairment or developing permanent hearing loss by age 3. Follow-up diagnostic testing should remain a priority for children with certain risk factors for hearing loss.

Acknowledgments
This study was partially supported by grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Iowa Department of Public Health (Grant 5UR3/DD000785), Health Resources Services Administration to the Iowa Department of Public Health (Grant H61MC26835-02), and the University of Iowa Graduate Student Senate to Kelsey Dumanch. We thank all families, audiologists, physicians, and staff for their compassion and hard work caring for Iowa's children. Declaration of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the article.
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