Development of a Shortened Version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ-S) for Screening Spatial-Hearing Ability Purpose The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) was developed to address how to measure spatial-hearing ability in complex listening situations (Tyler, Perreau, & Ji, 2009). It has been translated and validated into various languages, including Chinese, Dutch, French, and Persian. Although the SHQ contains only 24 items, it could be time-consuming ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   July 24, 2017
Development of a Shortened Version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ-S) for Screening Spatial-Hearing Ability
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hua Ou
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Illinois State University, Normal
  • Ann Perreau
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Augustana College, Rock Island, IL
  • Richard Tyler
    Department of Communication Disorders and Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Hua Ou, who is now at the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI: huou@wayne.edu
  • Editor: Sumitrajit Dhar
    Editor: Sumitrajit Dhar×
  • Associate Editor: Monita Chatterjee
    Associate Editor: Monita Chatterjee×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Hearing Disorders / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   July 24, 2017
Development of a Shortened Version of the Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ-S) for Screening Spatial-Hearing Ability
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-17-0030
History: Received March 23, 2017 , Revised April 14, 2017 , Accepted April 28, 2017
 
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-17-0030
History: Received March 23, 2017; Revised April 14, 2017; Accepted April 28, 2017

Purpose The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) was developed to address how to measure spatial-hearing ability in complex listening situations (Tyler, Perreau, & Ji, 2009). It has been translated and validated into various languages, including Chinese, Dutch, French, and Persian. Although the SHQ contains only 24 items, it could be time-consuming in a busy clinic to administer. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a shortened version of the SHQ (SHQ-S) and to compare self-perceived spatial-hearing ability across adults with normal hearing (NH), hearing loss (HL), and cochlear implants (CIs).

Method This was a retrospective study. The full version of the SHQ was administered to measure self-perceived spatial-hearing ability for 51 adults with NH at Augustana College, 47 adults with essentially mild to moderately severe sensorineural HL at Illinois State University, and 72 adult CI users at the University of Iowa. Exploratory factor analysis was performed for the full version for the data collected from adults with NH and HL. Appropriate items were chosen to develop the SHQ-S from the results of the exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was then applied to test the factor structure of the SHQ-S for all participants. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the self-perceived spatial-hearing performance scores between the 3 groups.

Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed scores loaded on 2 factors. Six items from the full version were chosen accordingly. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that that a shortened version of 6 items is sufficient to measure spatial-hearing ability. The internal consistency reliability of the SHQ-S was high. The main effect of the one-way analysis of variance was significant for the groups, F(2, 167) = 36.0, p < .0001. The comparisons with the Tukey adjustment indicated that the NH group reported significantly better spatial-hearing ability than either the HL or the CI group (both adjusted p values < .05). There was no significant difference between the participants with HL and CI users.

Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the 6-item SHQ-S were similar to those of the full version of the SHQ. We conclude that the SHQ-S is a reliable and valid tool for measuring spatial-hearing ability and screening for spatial-hearing difficulties. Participants with NH reported better spatial-hearing ability than those with HL or with CIs, whereas the CI users and participants with HL perceived similar spatial-hearing ability in the present study.

Acknowledgments
This research study was supported in part by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Advancing Academic-Research Careers Award to Hua Ou and the New Faculty Research Award and Larry Jones Research Fellowship awarded to Ann Perreau from Augustana College. This research was also supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Research Grant 2P50DC000242-26A1, awarded to the University of Iowa; National Institutes of Health Grant RR00059 from the General Clinical Research Centers Program, Division of Research Resources, awarded to the University of Iowa; the Lions Clubs International Foundation; and the Iowa Lions Foundation. We thank Jackie Yates for her preparation of the introduction and the participants from all three sites for their time.
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