Factors Associated With Depression in Patients With Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with depression for patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis. Method Data were gathered from the records of 620 consecutive patients who sought help concerning their tinnitus or hyperacusis from an audiology clinic in the United Kingdom. ... Research Article
Newly Published
Research Article  |   December 06, 2017
Factors Associated With Depression in Patients With Tinnitus and Hyperacusis
 
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Hashir Aazh
    Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Therapy Specialist Clinic, Audiology Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, United Kingdom
  • Brian C. J. Moore
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication.
    Disclosure: The authors have declared that no competing interests existed at the time of publication. ×
  • Correspondence to Hashir Aazh: hashir.aazh@nhs.net
  • Editor-in-Chief: Sumitrajit Dhar
    Editor-in-Chief: Sumitrajit Dhar×
  • Editor: Owen Murnane
    Editor: Owen Murnane×
Article Information
Hearing Disorders / Newly Published / Research Article
Research Article   |   December 06, 2017
Factors Associated With Depression in Patients With Tinnitus and Hyperacusis
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-17-0008
History: Received January 27, 2017 , Revised April 21, 2017 , Accepted August 3, 2017
 
American Journal of Audiology, Newly Published. doi:10.1044/2017_AJA-17-0008
History: Received January 27, 2017; Revised April 21, 2017; Accepted August 3, 2017

Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with depression for patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis.

Method Data were gathered from the records of 620 consecutive patients who sought help concerning their tinnitus or hyperacusis from an audiology clinic in the United Kingdom.

Results One third of the patients had borderline abnormal or abnormal scores on the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Linear regression models showed that HADS-D scores were related to scores for tinnitus handicap, tinnitus loudness, and uncomfortable loudness levels. Mediation analyses showed that (a) the influence of tinnitus handicap scores on HADS-D scores was mainly mediated via the effects of insomnia, hyperacusis, and anxiety; (b) the influence of tinnitus loudness scores on HADS-D scores was fully mediated via the effects of tinnitus handicap, insomnia, hyperacusis handicap, and anxiety; (c) and the small influence of uncomfortable loudness levels on HADS-D scores was fully mediated by hyperacusis handicap and anxiety.

Conclusion Those involved in the management of patients with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis should use a wide range of instruments to assess the full impact of tinnitus on a patient's life and should be prepared to refer a patient for treatment for depression, especially when the patient has anxiety, hyperacusis, and/or insomnia.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank Peter Athawes, Viveka Owen, Parisa Eghbal, Shanice Warner, and Joseph Perry for their help in data collection.
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